96. William O'Neill, American High: The Years of Confidence, 1945-1960 (New York: The Free Press, 1986), 66.  Civic officials, real estate groups, farmers, and homeowners objected to the installations for several reasons: fear of falling debris from booster cases, reduction in real estate values, damage ro crops, and the possibility of a missile misfire or explosion. BDM Corporation, Volume I, Section A, 14. This was typical of most Nike Ajax installations. The only protected room was a small "panel room" that contained the section control panel and just enough space for a crew to stay in during actual launch.). "Army's Nike Guided Missile to be Installed in Nation's Anti-Aircraft Defense System." The U.S. Army’s Nike missile would play an important role in America's air defense strategy. Most of these buildings were vernacular, one-story structures with cinder-block walls and slanted metal roofs. "Poor Rating for Hercules." Volume 80, No. – Ann Wagner has won a fifth term in the US House of Representatives, fending off a challenge from Democrat Jill Schupp. 73. September 23,1958. The Army Antiaircraft Command was based at Ent Air Force Base at Colorado Springs, Colorado. Also under these agreements, both the Air Force and the Army controlled surface-to-air missiles, but under different circumstances. Typically, the mast assembly was located approximately 600 feet from the missile-tracking radar and the target-tracking radar. HECKER , ILLINOIS ( KTVI ) A former Cold War Missile base in Hecker Illinois is up for sale and set to hit the auction block on July 12. In August and September 1940, during the Battle of Britain, the British had shown that a well-dispersed air force was a difficult bombing target, and demonstrated the value of an early warning system based on radar. The Berlin Blockade, together with the 1948 communist coup in Czechoslovakia, convinced many Americans that Stalin would seize every opportunity to expand Soviet control. The Western Allies wanted a rejuvenated Germany able to contribute to the European economy, and proposed currency reform among the occupation zones to revive commerce and regularize financial matters. The Air Defense Command was formed to "conduct experiments in the northeastern states to determine how fighter planes, antiaircraft artillery, and an air warming system could be integrated into a single air defense network. Today, Nike Missile Base SL-40 near Hecker, Illinois, is the Beck Vocational Center; its buildings preserved through adaptive reuse. United:States Army Missile and Munitions Center and School, Nike Missile System Orientation (Redstone Arsenal, Alabama: United States Army Missile and Munitions Center and School, Rev.  Prior to the construction of Nike bases to defend the Chicago area, antiaircraft artillery battalions, armed with 120mm and 90mm guns, were already present in and around Chicago. The Nike system brought together an array of antiaircraft, missile, computer, and radar elements. (Mach 1 is the speed of sound; Mach 2.3 is 2.3 times as fast as the speed of sound, or 1,679 mph. The construction drawings indicate that each barrack contained an officers' lounge, non-commissioned officers' lounge, several storage rooms, heater room, restroom, shower room, and large common sleeping room. George F. Kennan, minister-counselor at the embassy and a 20-year veteran of the Foreign Service, replied with the "long telegram," an 8,000-word explanation of the sources of Soviet conduct. © 1998 - 2020 Nexstar Inc. | All Rights Reserved. 17. 44. Battery Control Circuits and AG Transmission Circuits (ST 44-16 1-3 G).
All personnel for Nike batteries trained at the Army Air Defense Center at Fort Bliss, Texas. The Army was careful to select a booster disposal area that minimizes danger to Army personnel and property, as well as the surrounding civilian population. Thousands of World War II pilots were called back into service to deliver 4,500 tons of supplies per day, making more than 250,000 flights. As the target came within range of the acquisition radar, the battery control officer corroborated the target appearing on the plan position indicator with the early warning plot data received from the Air Defense Command Post. The battery control officer and the acquisition radar operator designated the target to the target-tracking radar, and interrogated it by using the identification friend-or-foe facilities on the console. During World War II, disputes over the timing of the invasion of France, and differing visions of the shape of postwar Europe exacerbated these tensions. In some cases, because of visual obstructions, it was necessary to mount the radars on towers. The missile and target-tracking radars also had increased ranges. 88. ROCKY MOUNTAIN SYSTEM SUPPORT OFFICE. A few months later, the Antiaircraft Artillery Board published a report that listed more specific, desired characteristics of the proposed Nike missile. By the close of the war, advances in air warfare made it plain that even the latest antiaircraft weapons were not capable of countering future air threats. Brenda Chandler decided to bring her family to the site just to get a glimpse of history before it's sold. " So these silos are much more massive than the Minuteman and Peacekeeper silos of the 70s and 80s.” 89. , Missile Test and Assembly Building: Missiles arrived at Nike bases unassembled and unarmed, as peacetime Interstate Commerce Commission restrictions prevented the transporting of ready missiles from a central assembly site. 67. Stalin wanted to keep the territory taken from Poland and Finland in 1939 and 1940, as well as the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Lake Zurich ((IL) Daily Herald, 23 January 1992; and Pioneer Press, 21 November 1985, in the files of the Lake County Museum, Wauconda, IL. Canine Kennel Area: Guard dogs were an important part of a Nike missile base's security system, as military patrolman and dogs patrolled the base. In 1952, the United States regained its nuclear superiority with an even more powerful weapon: the H (hydrogen) bomb. Key West, Florida The correct location, according to Mark Berhow, is San Francisco Bay. Nike Missile Site SF-88L, located in the Golden Gate National Recreation Area near San Francisco. The "ready to fire" lamp in the battery control console presented a visual summary of the state of readiness of the guidance and launching area.
As deployed for continental air defense, Nike bases were permanent installations. These missiles, though, were not able to shoot down other missiles and it was this flaw that ultimately rendered the Nike obsolete. 5. His correct title is Associate Professor of History. Ambrose. The West reacted with dismay. For Americans, suspicion of the Soviets was rooted in the Bolshevik calls for world revolution, the mass purges of the 1920s and 1930s, and the Soviet- German Non-Aggression Pact of August 1939 that led to the outbreak of war and a new partition of Poland. United States Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District, "Report of Excess Real Property" (Chicago, IL: United States Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District, 9 June 1969). The St. Louis Defense System was under the 5th ARADCOM Region jurisdiction until 1966, when it came under the 2nd ARADCOM Region, where it remained until the closing of the Nike bases surrounding St. Louis in 1968. Twenty-one feet long and 34 feet high with the booster attached, the missile weighed slightly over 2,455 pounds. HECKER, ILLINOIS.
Designed to serve as the last line of defense for American citizens, Nike installations encircled major metropolitan centers throughout the United States. On August 16, 1968, the Army announced the deactivation of 23 Nike Hercules bases nationwide, including those in the St. Louis Defense Area. The Battery Control Area contained the radar and computer equipment. Hartford, Connecticut Four sites were chosen for the installation of Nike Hercules missile facilities for the St. Louis area: one near Pacific, Missouri, and the three others in Illinois, at Hecker, Marine, and Pere Marquette State Park, near Grafton.
The building had cinder-blocks walls, a slanted roof, and two entry vestibules. A portion of bike trail in the preserve was part of the road that led to the launch site and. 109. The Beck Vocational Center opened on August 19, 1972. If you ask Allen, Nike was a “cash cow” and that “once it was started, it was very hard to stop.” Allen explains that it was more than a defense initiative, the Nike program was really “… a kind of jobs program that was very hard to challenge because it had a national security justification put on it.”. Test firings proved successful in June 1953, and the Army decided to employ underground launcher installations at all Nike bases within the continental United States. Try searching all Nike Missile Web Sites. The Historic American Engineering Record was established in 1969 by the National Park Service, the American Society of Civil Engineers, and the Library of Congress. As a result, Nike bases assumed a combat-like readiness, as 15-minute status permeated the atmosphere. One bunker contains several stacks of foam insulation board which will not be removed. The Nike defense system was a Cold War-era missile system in the United States. DRAWINGS At the point of "highest kill probability," the computer issued a burst order to the missile.
The morning after my exploration of Southeastern Colorado's incredible ghost towns I woke early and drove to the remote town of Deer Trail, Colorado. Huge Abandoned Titan I ICBM Nuclear Missile Silo Launch Complex Deep beneath the plains of Deer Trail, Colorado lies a hidden system of tunnels that once housed instruments of nuclear annihilation. The Antiaircraft Artillery and Guided Missile School, Underground Launching Equipment (ST44-161-31) (Fort Bliss, Texas: October 1955), 3.
Actual rates, however, varied according to prevailing circumstances. This situation suited the Soviets, who wanted to keep Germany from ever again becoming a threat.
In 1949, Americans learned that the Soviet Union had successfully tested an atomic bomb, several years ahead of U.S. intelligence estimates.
CHICAGO DISTRICT On March 9, 1942, the War Department activated the Antiaircraft Command as part of the Army Ground Forces. The 90mm gun was the major heavy antiaircraft weapon used by the United States during the war years. The three noncontiguous parcels of land were comprised of: 34.28 fee simple acres (20.12 acres for the Housing and Control Area; 14.03 acres for the Launcher Area; 0.13 acres for the well site); 193.18 easement acres (line-of-sight and safety easements); and 0.25 acres leased for a water line. Where 400-cycle power was required, the 60-cycle power was converted to 400-cycle power by means of frequency converters (changers). , In May 1945, Bell Laboratories presented a verbal report to the Army on "Project Nike" (named after the winged goddess of victory in Greek mythology). The battery control officer could also designate a new target that had priority by placing the "designate-abandon" switch in the "abandon" position. In 1956-1957, the 13th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion — which earlier had been part of the Chicago defense system of 90mm and 120mm antiaircraft guns — was headquartered at Nike Missile Base C- 54 (Orland Park), and served as a Nike-Ajax battalion. These missiles were adopted in 1963.
52. Ramona Ruhl edited and formatted the final HAER reports. Nike Zeus, the final Nike missile, was aimed at intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). The Proud Decades: America in War and Peace, 1941-1960. By July 1951, the Army Antiaircraft Command headquarters commanded a total of 38 antiaircraft artillery battalions.
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